This is a pair of endangered tri-spine horseshoe crabs (Tachypleus tridentatus) preparing to spawn. The larger female in front has chosen a place to deposit eggs. She has just commenced digging. The bubbles streaming up from between her prosoma and opisthosoma are the result of pockets of air trapped in the mud and gravel being released due to the female’s excavation. Spawning takes place in the intertidal zone, which is the reason that air is present in the sediment. The smaller male is firmly affixed to the female’s opisthosoma. He will fertilize the eggs she deposits, and then the pair will move on to find another location to spawn again.
Although these animals are called crabs, they are not members of the Subphylum Crustacea. They belong to a separate Subphylum—Chelicerata—which also comprises sea spiders, arachnids, and several extinct lineages such as sea scorpions. The earliest known fossils of horseshoe crabs date back 450 million years ago, qualifying these animals as living fossils, as they have remained largely unchanged.
Tachypleus tridentatus is the largest of the four living species of these marine arthropods, all of which are endangered.
Though habitat loss and overharvesting of these animals for food are primary contributors to the population decline of horseshoe crabs, the biomedical industry is also a major factor. Horseshoe crabs are bled for their amoebocytes (akin to white blood cells), which are used to derive an extract that reacts in the presence endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, which is found in the membranes of gram-negative bacteria. Estimates suggest that between three and 30% of the animals die as a result. There have also been suggestions that taking up to a third of each animal's blood adversely affects their ability to undertake vital functions, such as procreation, even if the animals survive.